Friday, November 4, 2016

The United Cargo Cult Of America: Deprogramming The Human Mind - Part 1

Pleas excuse any stray typos, spell check is an evil imp. We will correct them as we find them. Thank you. AAMorris Staff.

Exit (Counseling) Stage Right - The Do It Yourself Approach:
We have been subjected to a centuries long system of what can only be termed mind control.
The pyramid system of social control has existed as long as human culture, as we know it, has.
The Royalty could give up their claims and the system and its long term detrimental effect on human thinking would still be a problem. From wage slave to Queen, we are all victims of this historicalstanding confidence game and racket, some chains are paper and digital and some are made of gold.

It does not matter if the Royals are indeed figure heads or not. It does not matter what we call the elite who run things and it does not matter who they are. The system itself is the problem. Witting and unwitting minds serve its inhuman agenda.

We ourselves need to be ‘deprogrammed’. Color Television and now the internet, are the medium of Government. Government as we know it today would not exist as it does, were it not for the power of the full color audio visual experience. The Governmental beast would never have grown into the monster it is without the medium of television, the News and the talk shows. These latter formats are an overlooked neo-religion. We take for granted the power the talk show host and the newscaster has over defining the boundaries of our own imaginations. This is the intended role of the journalist. The modern journalist have replaced the Rabbi and Priest as the guardians of the boundaries of reason.
This is how we end up believing and taking for granted so many assumptions we should not.

The Mainstream News Media Filters & Distorts Reality
The prior media still exist, radio, film, print, word of mouth (hearsay) are still used today to manipulate social opinion and behavior. We have all been subjected to various schemes and layers of ‘mind control’ types of techniques and strategies. We are encouraged to engage in various socially reinforced fads, fashions, political and other artificial, prepackaged and pre approved, products of this very fake and commercial world we live in. In fact, is it even possible to escape the artificial world of commerce? Can a person really live off the land free from tax, fee and fine? Can we do that here in America the so-called home of the free? Are we really more free today, despite all the wonderful social change? What an adult does with their own body and with other like minded adults is their business. Forcing one’s will on others is the crime. This is what Governments and other forms of institutional based reasoned systems do. This is the crime these institutions are guilty of committing.
We areSupposed to Mind & Judge Someone Else’s Personal Behavioral Choices - Never Mind Tolerance & a Common Sense Application of The Golden Rule
 This is the very social behavior these systems promote. These same systems promote a busy body mind the other person’s business mentality that too many of us are quick to mimic for reasons both altruistic and selfish. Too many fees and fines and laws and restrictions are manufactured with the best intent of shaping a better world and the effect ends up being one that does nothing to achieve that end. We only end up feeding a commercialized beast of one kind or another. The Drug War is a fine example of where this reasoning leads. Young men and women stilldie from things like heroin overdoses, despite the eternal War On Drugs.  They end up getting jailed and fined over personal choices and this is the real crime. The Drug War is all about profit and is of course a subject for a series of articles. All the laws in the world can not make up for education and a pay for prison and fine based approach does not serve the public at all. We end up jailing each other over personal behavior choices we have no right to. The Drug War is a prime example of the limited thinking and the lies we see promoted in the name of so-called safety. In fact the Federal Government claims the safe, medically beneficial and non toxic substance, Cannabis, is essentially a poison, this is demonstrably absurd. Peanuts cause more deaths than Cannabis ever has. Context matters.  We need to realize we are free to decide what is and what is not medically beneficial for ourselves. We must learn to continue to educate ourselves and we must become our own individual authorities. The mainstream media, in all of its forms and by its very nature, encourages us to constantly seek empty external authority as the source of our own guidance. This is an obvious canard and one that really needs to be avoided. 
Limit the Damage
We need limited and more local bureaucracies that work and are constituted for the public good. The current system is constituted for itself. The higher level governments, like all higher level institutions, exist more for indoctrination and social control than for any other reason. The oaths the elected politicians take are to protect the interests and existence of the Governments themselves and not the ‘country’ or people. The politician do no work for those of us int he mass public. This is why they say and do whatever they want and get away with it and why change that benefits the mass public is slow to take effect. Prejudice is encouraged as a simple divide and conquer strategy. The mainstream media itself, by way of the News and related talk shows, is guilty of presenting a very filtered an distorted picture of reality, clearly designed to divide and conquer the public. We are supposed to be afraid of the race war that is forever around the corner (every summer) and we are supposed to fear the police and the government itself. We are supposed to hate and despise each other over political choices and we are even supposed to get similarly worked up and divided over sporting events and other divisive team building endeavors that should be experienced as entertainment.

The entertainment media by itself is not much of a problem as the work is clearly fictional and highly subjective. It is when the entertainment media is experienced in the context of the rest of the media that it can reinforce the various distorted narratives that are presented as fact. Hollywood and related productions continue to promote various fictions as fact to this day. Things like human space exploration and other sorts of clearly illogical mainstream Cosmological nonsense is sold as fact by both Hollywood, the University system and cable networks like History and Discovery channel.

Why We Are Kept In the Dark
Hollywood can always find financing for World War Two and NASA and other sorts of so-called real News story based films, usually made by Clint Eastwood and starring Tom Hanks. If either of these two make a film sold as based on a true story, we know it is probably based on a fake or otherwise highly distorted news event, designed to presented an unrealistic view of reality. We are supposed to be kept dumbed down so we are easier to control.

The Yellow Blueprint
This is also why Yellow Journalism can be described as the blueprint for culture. As it turns out, ours is still a highly immature and juvenile (& global) culture.  The modern news and the Governmental narratives have long followed this blueprint. History is filled with examples of cartoon reasoning presented as historical fact. History seems to be more myth and legend and propaganda than anything else. There is some truth mixed in with plenty of fiction. What most people do not understand is that the University system, like all other systems, does not exist to serve the interest of the mass public. Education is secondary to cultural indoctrination. This is why the official mainstream Cosmology and history is allowed to remain distorted and convoluted and absurd. 

We know we are repetitive but we feel it important to stress the relevance of the Yellow Journalism definition. We can see how what we are told is reliable reporting is nothing but nonsense. In other words, modern journalism relies on these vert techniques. Watergate is a primary example of this.
Watergate appears to be another scripted event. The story is absurd and is the very stuff of a Yellow Journalist’s greatest dream. Watergate is the subject for another articles, but the supposed News story that broke the Nixon Presidency famously relied on an unnamed source with a name that references pornographic film. Today’s political headlines are no different. 
Why Full Color Images Matter
"Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food. Colors can also enhance the effectiveness of placebos. For example, red or orange pills are generally used as stimulants. Color can indeed influence a person; however, it is important to remember that these effects differ between people. Factors such as gender, age, and culture can influence how an individual perceives color. For example, males reported that red colored outfits made women seem more attractive, while women answered that the color of a male's outfit did not affect his attractiveness.
Color psychology is also widely used in marketing and branding. Many marketers see color as an important part of marketing because color can be used to influence consumers' emotions and perceptions of goods and services. Companies also use color when deciding on brand logos. These logos seem to attract more customers when the color of the brand logo matches the personality of the goods or services, such as the color pink being heavily used on Victoria's Secret branding. However, colors are not only important for logos and products, but also for window displays in stores. Research shows that warm colors tended to attract spontaneous purchasers, despite cooler colors being more favorable."
"Since color is an important factor in the visual appearance of products as well as in brand recognition, color psychology has become important to marketing. Recent work in marketing has shown that color can be used to communicate brand personality.
Marketers must be aware of the application of color in different media (e.g. print vs. web), as well as the varying meanings and emotions that a particular audience can assign to color. Even though there are attempts to classify consumer response to different colors, everyone perceives color differently. The physiological and emotional effect of color in each person is influenced by several factors such as past experiences, culture, religion, natural environment, gender, race, and nationality. When making color decisions, it is important to determine the target audience in order to convey the right message. Color decisions can influence both direct messages and secondary brand values and attributes in any communication. Color should be carefully selected to align with the key message and emotions being conveyed in a piece.[16]
Research on the effects of color on product preference and marketing shows that product color could affect consumer preference and hence purchasing culture. Most results show that it is not a specific color that attracts all audiences, but that certain colors are deemed appropriate for certain products."
The Yellow Blueprint For Culture:
“emphasis on full-color Sunday supplements, usually with comic strips”
Joseph Campbell defines yellow press newspapers as having daily multi-column front-page headlines covering a variety of topics, such as sports and scandal, using bold layouts (with large illustrations and perhaps color), heavy reliance on unnamed sources, and unabashed self-promotion. The term was extensively used to describe certain major New York City newspapers around 1900 as they battled for circulation.[3]
Frank Luther Mott defines yellow journalism in terms of five characteristics:[4]
  1. scare headlines in huge print, often of minor news
  2. lavish use of pictures, or imaginary drawings
  3. use of faked interviews, misleading headlines, pseudoscience, and a parade of false learning from so-called experts
  4. emphasis on full-color Sunday supplements, usually with comic strips
  5. dramatic sympathy with the "underdog" against the system.”

Cargo Culture is Our Global Culture
Cargo cults are marked by a number of common characteristics, including a "myth-dream" that is a synthesis of indigenous and foreign elements; the expectation of help from the ancestors; charismatic leaders; and lastly, belief in the appearance of an abundance of goods.[7]
The indigenous societies of Melanesia were typically characterized by a "big man" political system in which individuals gained prestige through gift exchanges. The more wealth a man could distribute, the more people in his debt, and the greater his renown. Those who were unable to reciprocate were identified as "rubbish men". Faced, through colonialism, with foreigners with a seemingly unending supply of goods for exchange, indigenous Melanesians experienced "value dominance". That is, they were dominated by others in terms of their own (not the foreign) value system; exchange with foreigners left them feeling like rubbish men.[8]
Since the modern manufacturing process is unknown to them, members, leaders, and prophets of the cults maintain that the manufactured goods of the non-native culture have been created by spiritual means, such as through their deities and ancestors. These goods are intended for the local indigenous people, but the foreigners have unfairly gained control of these objects through malice or mistake.[9] Thus, a characteristic feature of cargo cults is the belief that spiritual agents will, at some future time, give much valuable cargo and desirable manufactured products to the cult members.[9]
Symbols associated with Christianity and modern Western society tend to be incorporated into their rituals; for example the use of cross-shaped grave markers. Notable examples of cargo cult activity include the setting up of mock airstrips, airports, offices, and dining rooms, as well as the fetishization and attempted construction of Western goods, such as radios made of coconuts and straw. Believers may stage "drills" and "marches" with sticks for rifles and use military-style insignia and national insignia painted on their bodies to make them look like soldiers, thereby treating the activities of Western military personnel as rituals to be performed for the purpose of attracting the cargo.“

We Need Our Own Mental "Exit Strategies".

Everyone who buys into the mythology of our collective global culture without thought is a victim of a very real 'brain washing' and cult thinking. The mythology promoted by the media in all of its various forms tends to reinforce the social control systems more so than not. Some things get through, but for the most part, the end result of all the commissioned art is that the mass public ends up still thinking and believing things that are clearly and demonstrably untrue as fact. Most in the mass public are unaware that history is more lie than not and that what most term "science" is not all it's made out to be. In fact what most call "science" is nothing but metaphysical mumbo jumbo nonsense and the stuff of yellow journal fantasy. The News and the talk shows clearly promote stories that do not answer the important questions of who, what, where, why, when and how. These stories tend to rely on yellow journalistic techniques and nothing else. In fact too many of the stories cannot be anything but scripted fictions. It's not that there are no real cases of violence or scandals, it's that the stories presented by the News tend to be little more than hearsay back ed up with illogical reasoning. There are usually flaws in the reporting that are obvious to those of us who are critical of the News. 
We have been programmed to view the News without a critical mind and this is the mistake. When someone makes a claim it is on them to back that claim up. What we have been conditioned to accept as "News" is little more than nonsense more often than not.
We need to critically view the News media and to realize that most of the claims the News passes on are little more than the equivalent of shallow press releases. Most of the studies quoted and the stories reported on, are all taken out of context and so distorted that the result os the audience of this media end up with an incorrect view of reality and this too is a crime.
In other words, the News has an agenda. The News is not only interested in ratings, it is state run at the highest levels. The real agenda is to give us all a false and filtered impression of the world so we continue to support the numerous layers of government. We must continue to pay taxes, fees and fines and be willing to jail each other over personal behavior choices. We must think we need to pay for a military to protect us, when the truth is the threat is manufactured and mostly theater. We the public get blamed for everything from war to global warming and the fact is none of it is true.
Whatever environmental change that is or isn't happening would be due to the actions of big business and the decisions to fix that are out of our hands and in the hands of the same elite who control the entire system in the first place. We get blamed so we think it is human nature that is the problem. We are encouraged to confuse anger with war. A wife stabbing her husband as the result of an argument is one thing. An entire nation of people getting together and deciding to go and march off to fight another group of people is another. It is easier to go out and live off of the land, fishing, hunting and farming than it is to go to war. There is plenty of land out there. Those of us who live around urban areas have a distorted view of the world. The media promotes the idea that we have more power and control over nature than we really do. 

Deprogramming refers to coercive measures to force a person in a controversial belief system to change those beliefs and abandon allegiance to the religious, political, economic, or social group associated with the belief system. Methods and practices of self-identified "deprogrammers" have involved kidnapping, false imprisonment, and coercion, and sometimes resulted in criminal convictions of the deprogrammers. Classic deprogramming regimens are designed for individuals taken against their will, which has led to controversies over freedom of religionkidnapping, and civil rights, as well as the violence which is sometimes involved.”
“As a technique, the deprogramming that has been practiced over the last half century has been typically commissioned by relatives, often parents of adult offspring, who objected to the subject's membership in an organization or group. It has been compared to exorcisms in both methodology and manifestation,[8] and the process sometimes has been performed with tacit support of law enforcement and judicial officials.[9][10] In response to a burgeoning number of new religious movements in the 1970s in the United States, the "father of deprogramming", Ted Patrick, introduced many of these techniques to a wider audience as a means to combat cults.[11][12] Since then, deprogrammings have been carried out "by the thousands".[10] For example, various atrocity stories served as justification for deprogramming of Unification Church members in the USA.
“As a technique for encouraging people to disassociate with groups with whom they have as consenting adults chosen to associate, deprogramming is a controversial practice. Even some cult critics have denounced it on legal and ethical grounds.[14]Similar actions, when done without force, have been referred to as "exit counseling". Sometimes the word deprogramming is used in a wider (and/or ironic or humorous sense), to mean the freeing of someone (often oneself) from any previously uncritically assimilated idea. According to Carol Giambalvo, "exit cousellors are usually former cult members themselves".[15]”

1610s, "worship," also "a particular form of worship," from French culte (17c.), from Latin cultus "care, labor; cultivation, culture; worship, reverence," originally "tended, cultivated," past participle of colere "to till" (see colony). Rare after 17c.; revived mid-19c. with reference to ancient or primitive rituals. Meaning "a devotion to a person or thing" is from 1829.
Cult. An organized group of people, religious or not, with whom you disagree. [Rawson]

late 14c., "ancient Roman settlement outside Italy," from Latin colonia "settled land, farm, landed estate," from colonus "husbandman, tenant farmer, settler in new land," from colere "to cultivate, to till; to inhabit; to frequent, practice, respect; tend, guard," from PIE root *kwel- (1) "move round, turn about" (source also of Latin -cola "inhabitant;" see cycle (n.)). Also used by the Romans to translate Greek apoikia "people from home." Modern application dates from 1540s.

mid-15c., "the tilling of land," from Middle French culture and directly from Latin cultura "a cultivating, agriculture," figuratively "care, culture, an honoring," from past participle stem of colere "to tend, guard; to till, cultivate" (see colony). The figurative sense of "cultivation through education" is first attested c. 1500. Meaning "the intellectual side of civilization" is from 1805; that of "collective customs and achievements of a people" is from 1867.
For without culture or holiness, which are always the gift of a very few, a man may renounce wealth or any other external thing, but he cannot renounce hatred, envy, jealousy, revenge. Culture is the sanctity of the intellect. [William Butler Yeats]
Slang culture vulture is from 1947. Culture shock first recorded 1940. Ironic or contemptuous spelling kulchur is attested from 1940 (Pound), and compare kultur.

Saturday, October 22, 2016

Disney, DARPA, The NSA & You

please visit for original article
Welcome to The Military Industrial Entertainment Complex™: Programming the Human Mind For Centuries & Only Getting Worse...
"Haseltine worked for a decade at Walt Disney Imagineering, the company's design and development group. As such, he would seem an unlikely choice for his new government mission. But the worlds of the NSA and Walt Disney Imagineering aren't so dissimilar. Both organizations include a diverse group of top-level scientists and share a penchant for security and secrecy (Disney won't say how many scientists it employees). There's a certain institutional quality to the unmarked, drab buildings that make up the sprawling Walt Disney Imagineering complex in Glendale, Calif.
Beyond developing innovative ride systems for theme parks, Disney's research and development team also has expertise in areas with military applications, including virtual-reality technology and information systems. Disney scientists are at the forefront of interactive TV and developing systems for protecting the company against Internet piracy.
Haseltine, 50, who holds a doctorate in physiological psychology, also is no stranger to the defense world. He spent 13 years at Hughes Aircraft Co., where he also managed R&D projects and was known as a leading expert on flight simulation. He joined Disney in 1992.
His new job will not be built around family fun. His role will be to lead a research and technology team for the spy agency, a division of the Department of Defense that employs 30,000. Neither NSA nor Haseltine will detail his exact responsibilities."
"I'm taking the job because I want to contribute my skills to helping the country," said Haseltine. "I'm particularly motivated because of what happened on September 11. Under ordinary circumstances, I would never have dreamed of leaving Disney, but these aren't ordinary circumstances."
Eric Haseltine
"Haseltine received a bachelor of arts degree in economics and psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in physiological psychology from Indiana University. He also has a certificate in Executive Management from UCLA's Anderson School of Management. He accomplished post-doctoral work in brain research at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
How To Kill Imaginations


Haseltine spent 13 years at Hughes Aircraft, where he rose to the position of Director of Engineering. He then left for Walt Disney Imagineering in 1992, where he joined the research and development group, working on large-scale virtual-reality projects. In 1998 he was promoted to senior vice president responsible for all technology projects.[1] In 2000, he was made Executive Vice President. Haseltine was head of research and development for all of Walt Disney Imagineering [2]by the time he left in 2002 to join the National Security Agency as Director of Research. From 2005 to 2007, Haseltine was Associate Director for Science and Technology, Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)—that organization's first—a position he described in a 2006 US News and World Reportinterview, as follows, "You can think of me as the CTO [chief technology officer] of the intelligence community".
"Haseltine is currently president, and managing partner of Haseltine Partners, LLC. He also serves on the advisory board of TTI/Vanguard."

Personal Life

Haseltine is currently engaged to be married to Chris Gilbert MD PhD. More information about Dr. Chris can be found at
His three distinguished siblings include William A. Haseltine, founder of the biotechnology firm Human Genome Sciences.


Haseltine's forthcoming book, Brain Candy: The Mind is Like a Box of Chocolates, will be published Fall 2016 by Oak Mill Press.
"Eric has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web, and Discover Magazine." [3]
  • Long Fuse, Big Bang: Achieving Long-Term Success Through Daily Victories. Hyperion, NY, 2010. ISBN 978-1-4013-2363-9


Eric Haseltine is a writer with numerous articles in Psychology Today.


The Department of Defense Exists To Defend The Government From Us
The battlefield is the hman imagination. The war is a psychological operation based one. We are the enemy and have been considered as such for centuries.
Mario Hytten, Chief Executive Officer, Planetaire AB, Captimax Sports Media, Sweden presented at the Webinar on Mind, Thinking & Creativity on March 9, 2016 .
We Are Not Afraid of Cartoon "Ghosts" We Get The "Jest"
Fort Meade is the Home to the Supposed "Intelligence" Agency that is assigned the task of security not for us, but for the corporate entity known as the USA. We are the 'enemy' in this 'mind war'.
"The National Security Agency (NSA) is an intelligence organization of the United States government, responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT). NSA is concurrently charged with protection of U.S. government communications and information systems against penetration and network warfare.[8][9] Although many of NSA's programs rely on "passive" electronic collection, the agency is authorized to accomplish its mission through active clandestine means,[10] among which are physically bugging electronic systems[11] and allegedly engaging in sabotage through subversive software.[12][13] Moreover, NSA maintains physical presence in a large number of countries across the globe, where its Special Collection Service (SCS) inserts eavesdropping devices in difficult-to-reach places. SCS collection tactics allegedly encompass "close surveillance, burglary, wiretapping, breaking and entering"."

Defense Information Systems Agency: Headquarters - Fort MeadeMaryland, U.S.

"The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), known as the Defense Communications Agency (DCA) until 1991, is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) combat support agency composed of military, federal civilians, and contractors. DISA provides information technology (IT) and communications support to the PresidentVice PresidentSecretary of Defense, the military services, the combatant commands, and any individual or system contributing to the defense of the United States.

According to the mission statement on the agency website, DISA “provides, operates, and assures command and control, information sharing capabilities, and a globally accessible enterprise information infrastructure in direct support to joint warfighters, National level leaders, and other mission and coalition partners across the full spectrum of operations.” DISA’s vision is “Information superiority in defense of our Nation.”
"The Defense Information School, or DINFOS, is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) school located at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. DINFOS fulfills the Department of Defense's need for an internal corps of professional journalists, broadcasters, and public affairs professionals.[1] Members from all branches of the U.S. military, DoD civilians and international military personnel attend DINFOS for training in public affairs, print journalism, photojournalism, photography, television and radio broadcasting, lithography, equipment maintenance and various forms of multimedia. The American Council on Education recommends college credit for most DINFOS courses."
Fort George G. Meade[4] is a United States Army installation that includes the Defense Information School, the Defense Media Activity, the United States Army Field Band, and the headquarters of United States Cyber Command, the National Security Agency, the Defense Courier Service, and Defense Information Systems Agency headquarters. It is named for George G. Meade, a general from the U.S. Civil War, who served as commander of the Army of the Potomac. The fort's smaller census-designated place includes support facilities such as schools, housing, and the offices of the Military Intelligence Civilian Excepted Career Program (MICECP).”
War - What is it Good For?
The Military is the Place to Go To Learn How to Sing & Dance
"The United States Army Field Band of Washington, D.C. is a touring musical organization of the United States Army. Each year, the Army Field Band performs more than 400 concerts and makes thousands of appearances before audiences of all ages. From America's largest cities to her smallest heartland communities, "The Musical Ambassadors of the Army" tell the story of the Army.
The soldier-musicians of the Field Band have appeared live, on the radio, and on television in all 50 states, and have performed in 25 foreign countries on four continents. They are the most traveled musical organization of the United States military. Stationed at Ft. Meade, MD, the Army Field Band consists of four performing components: The Concert Band, The Soldiers' Chorus, the Jazz Ambassadors, and The Volunteers. The Army Field Band's operations component works in garrison at Ft. Meade and organizes all tours."
"The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
DARPA was created in February 1958 as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPAby President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Its purpose was to formulate and execute research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, with the aim to reach beyond immediate military requirements.[3] The administration was created in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1 in 1957, and DARPA's mission was to ensure U.S. militarytechnology would be more sophisticated than that of the nation's potential enemies.
The name of the organization changed several times from its founding name ARPA: DARPA (March 1972), ARPA (February 1993), and DARPA (March 1996).
DARPA is independent from other military research and development and reports directly to senior Department of Defense management. DARPA has about 240 employees, of whom 13 are in management, and close to 140 are technical staff.[citation needed]
DARPA-funded projects have provided significant technologies that influenced many non-military fields, such as computer networking and graphical user interfaces in information technology."


"In the mid-90s, in a bid to streamline government defense spending, there was a conscious decision by the U.S. military to move away from sub-contracting to outside interests for their development needs. Instead they began a campaign to bring skilled people into the forces to foster their own R&D culture and that had major implications for the relationship between the military and entertainment industries based particularly in their joint interest in games. The military are very familiar with the reality of simulation, particularly as games – they have been part of their training about strategy as long as commanders have coordinated groups of people for large-scale combat. As Michelle Barron notes:
Games of all sorts – video games, board games, and games kids play in the backyard – have historically been about conflict and warfare. Whether you’re playing Chess, which is a simulated battlefield, or a game like Go, an ancient Chinese game that is also a simulated battlefield, or you’re playing a board game like Risk or Axis and Allies, you’re essentially at war and you’re playing out military conflict. The history continues with electronic games. (Barron, 2003)
Further Tim Lenoir and Henry Loward also point out that the:
…notion of the war game as a simulation, as an imitation of combat by other means, preceded the use of computer-based models for encoding rules, data, and procedures. War games have taken many forms ranging from large-scale field exercises to abstract strategy games played with maps, counters or miniatures. (Lenoir and Loward, 2002)
In particular during the twentieth century, air crew training came to depend on the use of simulators that allowed pilots to practice flying without putting their lives, or more importantly, their expensive aircraft in danger. Flight simulators made a quick transition to the digital and many early computers shipped with games that gave the experience of flying. Lenoir and Loward track the development of the initially tenuous links between the computer simulation industry and the US military and the subsequent development of intimate connections between them (2002). These connections share an interest in computing technology that could deliver optimal performance, high reality simulations.
The military have been dabbling directly in the commercial computer game environment for less than a decade. In 1996, Marine Corps Commandant General Charles C. Krulak issued a directive suggesting that Marines use PC-based wargames to improve military thinking about the tactics and techniques of modern warfare (Lister, 2003). This led to the first concerted attempt at harnessing computer gaming technology and led to the military release of an add-on pack (a mod) for Id Software’s Doom II. The mod is now readily available to download from the World Wide Web. You still need a copy of Doom II in order to use the mod, but once you have installed the modification the whole game changes into a real-life simulation where the monsters become terrorists and the locations become realistic (ID Software, 1997). In 2001 the US Military assembled a team of designers (under the name Rival Interactive) to create a real-time strategy combat game called Real War in the same vein as Command and Conquer. The purpose of Real War was to teach soldiers how to think like commanders (Lenoir and Loward, 2002).
Such moves, testing the waters of commercial technologies, planted the seeds for the eventual development of the Department of Defense funded computer game America’s Army by the MOVES Institute, based at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. In a pre-design briefing, the creators expressed their goal for the project (which exists in two parts: Operations and Soldiers) as two-fold: ‘We conceived America’s Army: Soldiers as a realistic look at army personal and career opportunities via sophisticated role-playing… Our goal within America’s Army:Operations was to demonstrate life in the infantry’ (Lenoir and Loward, 2002).
In practice, the educational value of the project seems incidental to what America’s Army: Operations actually is: a multiplayer first-person-shooter game. As anyone who has played any multi-user shooter game knows, when you get people in a death-match game it becomes a free-for-all where expert players race through and show off their immensely honed skills with the game interface by slaughtering other players. In a typical training scenario, America’s Army will deploy the “team” of marines near the zone of engagement. The first thing the user learns when playing is that you can’t afford to be flippant about things. One well-aimed shot to the avatar’s vital zones and it’s lights out. As the player’s avatar expires, the corpse slumps to the ground (or is thrown forward like a crash-test-dummy, depending on the physics of the weapon causing digital demise). Then for the remaining time that the skirmish plays out (until one side achieves the objective or a whole team is defeated), the user is detached from the game and becomes an “observer” who can change the camera view but otherwise cannot affect the game."
This is sample footage of the earliest surviving colour videotape recording which is the Dwight Eisenhower inaugural address to WRC-TV on 22nd May 1958. The first 15 minutes of this event was shot in B&W which you see the president arriving to the building and the news reporter giving details of the event, then about nearly 15 minutes in Robert Sarnoff hits the colour switch and on comes the colour.
"The most famous UNIVAC product was the UNIVAC I mainframe computer of 1951, which became known for predicting the outcome of the U.S. presidential election the following year. This incident is particularly noteworthy because the computer predicted an Eisenhower landslide when traditional pollsters all called it for Adlai Stevenson.[1] The numbers were so skewed that CBS's news boss in New York, Mickelson, decided the computer was in error and refused to allow the prediction to be read. Instead they showed some staged theatrics that suggested the computer was not responsive, and announced it was predicting 8-7 odds for an Eisenhower win (the actual prediction was 100-1). When the predictions proved true and Eisenhower won a landslide within 1% of the initial prediction, Charles Collingwood, the on-air announcer, embarrassingly announced that they had covered up the earlier prediction."
A Long History of Playing Games - Why Fight Wars Among Family & Friends When You Can Fake it With Parlor Games?
Drawing inspiration from chessHellwig, Master of Pages to the Duke of Brunswick, created a battle emulation game in 1780. According to Max Boot's book War Made New (2006, pg 122), sometime between 1803 and 1809, the Prussian General Staffdeveloped war games, with staff officers moving metal pieces around on a game table (with blue pieces representing their forces and red pieces those of the enemy), using dice rolls to indicate random chance and with a referee scoring the results. Increasingly realistic variations became part of military training in the 19th century in many nations, and were called Kriegsspiel or "wargame". 

Wargames or military exercises remain an important part of military training today.

Modern wargaming originated with the military need to study warfare and to 'reenact' old battles for instructional purposes. The stunning Prussian victory over the Second French Empire in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 is sometimes partly credited to the training of Prussian officers with the game Kriegsspiel, which was invented around 1811 and gained popularity with many officers in the Prussian army. These first wargames were played with dice which represented "friction", or the intrusion of less than ideal circumstances during a real war (including moraleweather, the fog of war, etc.), though this was usually replaced by an umpire who used his own combat experience to determine the results.”
"The first specific non-military wargame club was started in OxfordEngland, in the 19th century."[3] Naval enthusiast and analyst Fred T. Jane came up with a set of rules for depicting naval actions with the use of model ships, or miniatures around 1898 (Reprinted 2008). The 1905/6 edition of Jane's Fighting Ships includes a revised edition for "The Naval War Game".[4]
H.G. Wells' books Floor Games (1911) and Little Wars (1913) were attempts to codify rules for fighting battles with toy soldiers(miniatures), and make them available to the general public. They were very simple games, and in some ways just provide a context for shooting spring-loaded toy cannons at toy soldiers, but "in his Appendix to Little Wars, Wells speaks of the changes required to convert his admittedly simplistic rules into a more rigorous Kriegspiel."[5] However, Wells also states in his rules that combat "should be by actual gun and rifle fire and not by computation. Things should happen and not be decided," in opposition to the general nature of Kriegspiel play.
In 1940 Fletcher Pratt's Naval War Game was first published. The game started in New York, but other clubs formed around the USA. Jack Coggins was invited by Pratt to participate, and recalled that Pratt's game involved dozens of tiny wooden ships—built to a scale of about one inch to 50 feet—spread over the living room floor of his apartment. Their maneuvers and the results of their battles were calculated via a complex mathematical formula, with scale distances marked off with tape measures.[6] The game's popularity grew and moved to using a ballroom for games with 60 or more players per side.[7] The game was respected by the Naval War College and serving naval officers regularly participated in games[8] For an evaluation of the Fletcher Pratt Game versus reality see Chapter 10 of The Fletcher Pratt Naval Wargame book. link
All of these games were meant to be accessible to the general public, but actual play was made difficult owing to the expense of purchasing an army or navy's worth of miniatures. As leisure time and disposable income generally rose through the 20th Century, miniatures games slowly gained a following. Most gaming groups informally wrote and/or revised their own rules, which were never published.
A mass market emerges
In 1955 Jack Scruby started producing miniatures using RTV rubber molds, which greatly reduced their expense, and he turned this into a business (Scruby Miniatures) in 1957 and started publishing War Game Digest.[9] It, and its successors, put fellow miniatures enthusiasts in touch with each other, and provided a forum for ideas and locally produced rules to be shared with the rest of the hobby.
Around the same time in the UK Donald Featherstone began writing an influential series of books on wargaming, which represented the first mainstream published contribution to wargaming since H.G Wells. Titles included : WargamesAdvanced WargamesSolo WargamingWargame CampaignsBattles with Model TanksSkirmish Wargaming. Such was the popularity of such titles that other authors were able to have published wargaming titles. This output of published wargaming titles from British authors coupled with the emergence at the same time of several manufacturers providing suitable wargame miniatures (e.g. Miniature Figurines, Hinchliffe, Peter Laing, Garrisson, Skytrex, Davco, Heroic & Ros) was responsible for the huge upsurge of popularity of the hobby in the late 1960s and into the 1970s.[10]
Meanwhile, the first modern mass-market wargame, based on cardboard counters and maps, was designed and published by Charles S. Roberts in 1952.[11] After nearly breaking even on Tactics, he decided to found the Avalon Hill Game Company as a publisher of intelligent games for adults, and is called "The father of board wargaming". The modern commercial board wargaming industry is considered to have begun with the publication of Tactics II in 1958, and the founding of The General Magazine by Avalon Hill in 1964.
In 1959, Diplomacy was released commercially after being developed by Allan B. Calhamer in 1954.[12] Unlike war games to date, it focused primary attention on the dynamics of alliances and betrayals,[13] and avoided the use of dice or other sources of random effects. It was played by John F. Kennedy and Henry Kissinger[14] and the latter has said it was his favorite game.[15]
In 1961, Avalon Hill published Roberts' Gettysburg, which is considered to be the first board wargame based entirely on a historical battle. D-Day and Chancellorsville, the first commercial games to use a hexagonal mapboard, were also published that year.
Avalon Hill had a very conservative publishing schedule, typically about two titles a year, and wargames were only about half their line. During the late 1960s, a number of small magazines dedicated to the hobby appeared, along with new game companies. The most important of these were undoubtedly Strategy & Tactics, and the company founded to save it from failing: Simulations Publications, Inc. (SPI). Under SPI, S&T started including a new game in every issue of the magazine, which along with the regular games SPI was publishing vastly increased the number of wargames available.
The Golden Age (1970s)[edit]
Coupled with an aggressive advertising campaign, this caused a tremendous rise in the popularity of wargaming in the early 1970s, with a large number of new companies starting up. Two of these would last for some years: Game Designers' Workshop (GDW), and Tactical Studies Rules (TSR). TSR's medieval era miniatures game, Chainmail (1971) included a fantasy supplement that led to a new phenomenon that would become much bigger than its parent hobby, role-playing games (RPGs). (For a better look at these developments see the history of role-playing games.)
The 1970s can be considered the 'Golden Age of Wargaming',[16] with a large number of new companies publishing an even larger number of games throughout the decade, powered by an explosive rise in the number of people playing wargames. Avalon Hill's PanzerBlitz (1970), Panzer Leader (1974), and Squad Leader (1977) were particularly popular during this time, with their innovative geomorphic mapboard system. Wargames began to diversify in subject matter, with the first science-fiction wargame (Galactic Warfare, published in the UK by Davco) appearing in 1973 and one of the longest lasting and most successful, Star Fleet Battles, published by Task Force Games, appearing in 1979. Wargames also diversified in size during the decade with both microgames such as Steve Jackson's Ogre that had one small map, about 100 pieces and a complexity that permitted games to be completed in about an hour, and "monster games" such as "War in Europe" with over a dozen large maps and thousands of pieces, requiring dozens of hours to complete.[17]
A smaller but continuing presence[edit]
The boom came to an end, and was followed by the usual bust in the early 1980s, most markedly with the acquisition of SPI by TSR in 1982. The hobby never truly recovered from this, and is today much smaller than it was during the 1970s.[18][19] Numerous factors have been implicated in the decline, including the rise of gaming alternatives (such as RPGs), the ever increasing complexity of wargames, and changing demographics and lifestyles.[20]
During the 1980s, much of the market for wargames was dominated by roleplaying games. Then, when personal computers became available, gamers could simply "sit down and play" without learning masses of rules, clearing physical space, and finding and coordinating schedules with opponents. However, in 1983 Games Workshop published Warhammer Fantasy Battle, initially as a "Mass-combat Role Playing Game", which quickly moved to dominate the fantasy wargaming market. When collectible card gamesarrived in the 1990s, the gaming market became even more competitive. By this time, many wargame publishers were already long gone.
Despite the decline, wargaming continues to survive in different forms. Advanced Squad Leader (1985) became a niche hobby in and of itself, and Axis and Allies (1984) was very popular with the mass market audience and Games Workshop's Warhammer Fantasy Battle (1983) spawned a long-lasting line popular miniatures games including the successive editions of Warhammer and the science-fantasy Warhammer 40,000 game. The genre of 'card-driven games' emerged with the publication of We the People by AH in 1994, and continues in current releases from GMT. Battle Cry (2000) and Memoir '44 (2004) proved that light wargames can still be commercially successful, as long as the rules are clear and accessible, and the components are high in quality. Block wargames, such as those published by Columbia Games remain quite popular. Companies like GMT Games and Multi-Man Publishing continue to survive and publish highly detailed hex and counter wargames.”