Wednesday, October 12, 2016

NASA & THE MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX PRESENTS: 3D SPECIAL EFFECTS FOR ENTERTAINMENT Part 1

"Modern wargaming originated with the military need to study warfare and to 'reenact' old battles for instructional purposes. The stunning Prussian victory over the Second French Empire in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 is sometimes partly credited to the training of Prussian officers with the game Kriegsspiel, which was invented around 1811 and gained popularity with many officers in the Prussian army. These first wargames were played with dice which represented "friction", or the intrusion of less than ideal circumstances during a real war (including moraleweather, the fog of war, etc.), though this was usually replaced by an umpire who used his own combat experience to determine the results."
This article looks into the relationship between the Military Industrial Complex, NASA and Hollywood.

Together these are basically The Military Industrial Entertainment Complex™. And the purpose of this complex is to fool you into thinking what you see on a screen or in print is real. What you think of as history is probably wrong. The world might not work how you think it does.

NASA is Hollywood. Hollywood is the Military. The NEWS is state run. The entire system is based on the basic ideas of yellow journalism which relies on extremely dishonest propaganda tactics. The Space Station is Fake. Easily explained with pre and post production techniques that originate back in the earliest days of photography and film. Darkroom photoshop techniques are as old as photography and deception is as old as speech. Wars and history are not what you think. If you’ve seen it on a screen it might not be real. You have been conditioned to accept highly edited video clips and voice over narration as real. You have been conditioned to trust the news people that come into your living room every morning and evening. You are not supposed to realize that those persons you see on the screen are just theatrical personas. The journalists read from the same scripts. The news and politics is more scripted than you might think. Here we examine how the military and Hollywood craft these illusions. Hollywood special effect starts with stage magic. Houdini was a film maker. Let’s take a look at how the illusions are made.

"The lesson here, surely, is not that the camera can, and often does, lie, but that it has lied ever since it was invented. “Reconstruction” of battle scenes was born with battlefield photography."

"Matthew Brady did it during the Civil War. And, even earlier, in 1858, during the aftermath of the Indian Mutiny, or  rebellion, or war of independence, the pioneer photographer Felice Beato created dramatized reconstructions, and notoriously scattered the skeletal remains of Indians in the foreground of his photograph of the Sikander Bagh in order to enhance the image.
Most interesting of all, perhaps, is the question is how readily those who viewed such pictures accepted them. For the most part, historians have been very ready to assume that the audiences for “faked” photographs and reconstructed movies were notably naive and accepting. A classic instance, still debated, is the reception of the Lumiere Brothers’ pioneering film short Arrival of the Train at the Station, which showed a railway engine pulling into a French terminus, shot by a camera placed on the platform directly in front of it. In the popular retelling of this story, early cinema audiences were so panicked by the fast-approaching train that—unable to distinguish between image and reality—they imagined it would at any second burst through the screen and crash into the cinema. Recent research has, however, more or less comprehensively debunked this story (it has even been suggested that the reception accorded to the original 1896 short has been conflated with panic caused by viewing, in the 1930s, of early 3D movie images)—though, given the lack of sources, it remains highly doubtful precisely what the real reception of the Brothers’ movie was.
Certainly, what impresses the viewer of the first war films today is how ludicrously unreal, and how contrived, they are. According to Bottomore, even the audiences of 1897 gave Georges Méliès’s 1897 fakes a mixed reception:

If You Ever Have The Pleasure Of Witnessing Fighter Jets Fly Overhead, You Will Experience A Lot Of Noise And 'Thunder' And You Will See That These High Speed Aircraft Keep A Safe Distance From Each Other.

 A few people might have believed that some of the films were genuine, especially if, as sometimes happened, the showmen proclaimed that they were so. Other viewers had doubts on the matter…. Perhaps the best comment on the ambiguous nature of Méliès’ films came from a contemporary journalist who, while describing the films as “wonderfully realistic,” also stated that they were artistically made subjects.

Yet while the brutal truth is surely that Méliès’s shorts were just about as realistic than Amet’s 1:70 ship models, in a sense that hardly matters. These early film-makers were developing techniques that their better-equipped successors would go on to use to shoot real footage of real wars—and stoking demand for shocking combat footage that has fueled many a journalistic triumph. Modern news reporting owes a debt to the pioneers of a century ago—and for as long as it does, the shade of Pancho Villa will ride again."
Photography Used To Manipulate The Behavior of the Masses
"An early example of tampering was in the early 1860s, when a photo of Abraham Lincoln was altered using the body from a portrait of John C. Calhoun and the head of Lincoln from a famous seated portrait by Mathew Brady – the same portrait which was the basis for the original Lincoln Five-dollar bill.[4] Another is exampled in the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalogue wherein it exposes a manipulated American Civil War photograph of General Ulysses S. Grant posing horseback in front of his troops at City Point, Virginia.[9] Close observation of the photograph raises questions and brings to light certain details in the photograph that simply don't add up. For example, Grant's head is set at a strange angle to his body, his uniform is of a different time period, and his favorite horse "Cincinnati" did not have a left hind sock like the horse in the photograph, although his other horse "Egypt" did have a sock but on a different foot. With further research, three different photographs were discovered that explained the composite using Grant's head from one photograph, the body of Major General Alexander McDowell McCook atop his horse from another photograph, and for the background, an 1864 photograph of Confederate prisoners captured at the Battle of Fisher's Hill.[9]
It was not until the 20th Century that we began to see digital retouching with Quantel computers running Paintbox in professional environments,[10] which, alongside other contemporary packages, were effectively replaced in the market by Adobe Photoshop and other editing software for graphic imaging." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photo_manipulation#Early_manipulation

BOO! MEET THE WWII GHOST ARMY

"They drove their vehicles back and forth through local towns to create the illusion of heavy traffic. They visited cafés and spun fictitious stories for whatever spies lurked in the shadows. ‘We were turned loose in town,’ said John Jarvie, a corporal in the camouflage unit who went on to a career as an art director, ‘and told to go to the pub, order some omelettes, and talk loose.’ They even went so far as to create fake command posts, and against all Army regulations staffed them with counterfeit commanders."


THE LIVE ACTION THEATRICAL FALSE FLAG STYLE EVENT GHOST ARMY

"It was, in essence, a form of performance art designed to lend an extra degree of realism to their productions. They altered their uniforms and vehicle markings to those of whatever unit they were imitating that week. They drove their vehicles back and forth through local towns to create the illusion of heavy traffic. They visited cafés and spun fictitious stories for whatever spies lurked in the shadows. ‘We were turned loose in town,’ said John Jarvie, a corporal in the camouflage unit who went on to a career as an art director, ‘and told to go to the pub, order some omelettes, and talk loose.’ They even went so far as to create fake command posts, and against all Army regulations staffed them with counterfeit commanders. A colourful mission critique written by a young lieutenant named Frederick Fox (who went on to become a Protestant minister and a White House aide) explained why such rule breaking was necessary. ‘Impersonation is our racket. If we can’t do a complete job, we might as well give up. You can’t portray a woman if bosoms are forbidden.’"

Layers of Lies Protect The Truth. The wars were staged events.

The so called "enemy spies" were the European and (ultimately) the World public, for generations to come.

Enter The Be 'PC" AGE:
"The precursor sciences to the development of modern computer graphics were the advances in electrical engineeringelectronics, and television that took place during the first half of the twentieth century. Screens could display art since the Lumiere brothers' use of mattes to create special effects for the earliest films dating from 1895, but such displays were limited and not interactive. The first cathode ray tube, the Braun tube, was invented in 1897 - it in turn would permit the oscilloscope and the military control panel - the more direct precursors of the field, as they provided the first two-dimensional electronic displays that responded to programmatic or user input. Nevertheless, computer graphics remained relatively unknown as a discipline until the 1950s and the post-World War II period - during which time, the discipline emerged from a combination of both pure universityand laboratory academic research into more advanced computers and the United States military's further development of technologies like radar, advanced aviation, and rocketry developed during the war. New kinds of displays were needed to process the wealth of information resulting from such projects, leading to the development of computer graphics as a discipline."
Satan Lord of Lies and Illusions
The Band of Joy - Satan Your Kingdom Must Come Down
One early incident demonstrated the dangers of embroidering the truth. The CPI fed newspapers the story that ships escorting the First Division to Europe sank several German submarines, a story discredited when newsmen interviewed the ships' officers in England. Republican Senator Boies Penrose of Pennsylvania called for an investigation and The New York Times called the CPI "the Committee on Public Misinformation."[20] The incident turned the once compliant news publishing industry into skeptics.[21]
Early in 1918, the CPI made a premature announcement that "the first American built battle planes are today en route to the front in France," but newspapers learned that the accompanying pictures were fake, there was only one plane, and it was still being tested.[22] At other times, though the CPI could control in large measure what newspapers printed, its exaggerations were challenged and mocked in Congressional hearings.[23] The Committee's overall tone also changed with time, shifting from its original belief in the power of facts to mobilization based on hate, like the slogan "Stop the Hun!" on posters showing a U.S. soldier taking hold of a German soldier in the act of terrorizing a mother and child, all in support of war bond sales.”
“Staff
Among those who participated in the CPI's work were:
Edward Bernays, a pioneer in public relations and later theorist of the importance of propaganda to democratic governance. He directed the CPI's Latin News Service. The CPI's poor reputation prevented Bernays from handling American publicity at the 1919 Peace Conference as he wanted.”

World War One Propaganda Warning!

“The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 14, 1917, to June 30, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. It primarily used propaganda techniques to accomplish these goals.”
“The purpose of the CPI was to influence American public opinion toward supporting U.S. participation in World War I via a prolonged propaganda campaign.[5] The CPI at first used material that was based on fact, but spun it to present an upbeat picture of the American war effort. In his memoirs, Creel claimed that the CPI routinely denied false or undocumented atrocity reports, fighting the crude propaganda efforts of "patriotic organizations" like the National Security League and the American Defense Society that preferred "general thundering" and wanted the CPI to "preach a gospel of hate."[6]
The committee used newsprint, posters, radio, telegraph, cable and movies to broadcast its message. It recruited about 75,000 "Four Minute Men," volunteers who spoke about the war at social events for an ideal length of four minutes, considering that the average human attention span was judged at the time to be four minutes. They covered the draft, rationing, war bond drives, victory gardens and why America was fighting. It was estimated that by the end of the war, they had made more than 7.5 million speeches to 314 million people in 5,200 communities.[7] They were advised to keep their message positive, always use their own words and avoid "hymns of hate."[8] For ten days in May 1917, the Four Minute Men were expected to promote "Universal Service by Selective Draft" in advance of national draft registration on June 5, 1917.[9]
The CPI staged events designed for specific ethnic groups. For instance, Irish-American tenor John McCormack sang at Mount Vernon before an audience representing Irish-American organizations.[10] The Committee also targeted the American worker and, endorsed by Samuel Gompers, filled factories and offices with posters designed to promote the critical role of American labor in the success of the war effort.[11]
The CPI's activities were so thorough that historians later stated, using the example of a typical midwestern American farm family, that[12]
Every item of war news they saw—in the country weekly, in magazines, or in the city daily picked up occasionally in the general store—was not merely officially approved information but precisely the same kind that millions of their fellow citizens were getting at the same moment. Every war story had been censored somewhere along the line— at the source, in transit, or in the newspaper offices in accordance with ‘voluntary’ rules established by the CPI.
Rejection of the word 'propaganda'[edit]
Creel wrote about the Committee's rejection of the word propaganda, saying: "We did not call it propaganda, for that word, in German hands, had come to be associated with deceit and corruption. Our effort was educational and informative throughout, for we had such confidence in our case as to feel that no other argument was needed than the simple, straightforward presentation of facts."[13]”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Committee_on_Public_Information
Bob Weir formerly of the Grateful Dead on 03/24/12 talking about the Bohemian Grove. The Bohemian Grove is a 2,700-acre (1,100 ha) campground located at 20601 Bohemian Avenue, in Monte Rio, California, belonging to a private San Francisco-based men's art club known as the Bohemian Club.
“Lieutenant General William Wilson "Buffalo Bill" Quinn (November 1, 1907 – September 11, 2000) was a United States Army officer, who served in intelligence during World War II. Born in Crisfield, Somerset, Maryland and a 1933 graduate of West Point, Quinn retired as a lieutenant general on March 1, 1966 as the commanding general of the Seventh United States Army. He died in Washington, DC at Walter Reed Army Hospital at 92 years old.”
“Quinn participated in the Battle of the Bulge, Operation Dragoon and on January 1, 1945 he was part of Operation Northwind.
Quinn was in Korea from 1951 to 1952 and in August 1951 Quinn was wounded in Korea. While in Korea he won and was awarded the Silver Star, Legion of Merit and the Bronze Star with the "V" Device. He was also in the Battle of Inchon. While he was in Korea he was the commanding Officer of the 17th Infantry Regiment which was part of the 7th Infantry Division (the 17th Infantry was, and still is, nicknamed "the Buffalo’s”)”
THE MAYPOLE REPRESENTS THE WORLD AXIS
"The axis mundi (also cosmic axis, world axis, world pillar, center of the world, world tree), in certain beliefs and philosophies, is the world center, or the connection between Heaven and Earth. As the celestial pole and geographic pole, it expresses a point of connection between sky and earth where the four compass directions meet. At this point travel and correspondence is made between higher and lower realms. Communication from lower realms may ascend to higher ones and blessings from higher realms may descend to lower ones and be disseminated to all. The spot functions as the omphalos (navel), the world's point of beginning." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_mundi
SKULL & BONES: Early Special Effects: You Will Believe Men Can Swim Underwater
Conspiracy Free History, How The Freemasons Really Worked for The British Royalty: 007 indeed!

A German Family Rules The British Empire

The Definitive Treaty of Peace 1783
"In the Name of the most Holy & undivided Trinity."
“It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the Hearts of the most Serene and most Potent Prince George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, Arch- Treasurer and Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc.. and of the United States of America, to forget all past Misunderstandings and Differences that have unhappily interrupted the good Correspondence and Friendship which they mutually wish to restore;”
Article 4th:
It is agreed that Creditors on either Side shall meet with no lawful Impediment to the Recovery of the full Value in Sterling Money of all bona fide Debts heretofore contracted.”
Article 8th:
The Navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the Ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the Subjects of Great Britain and the Citizens of the United States.”
".On 4 May 1493 Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia), an Aragonese from Valencia by birth, decreed in the bull Inter caetera that all lands west and south of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Castile, although territory under Catholic rule as of Christmas 1492 would remain untouched. The bull did not mention Portugal or its lands, so Portugal could not claim newly discovered lands even if they were east of the line. Another bull, Dudum siquidem, entitled Extension of the Apostolic Grant and Donation of the Indies and dated 25 September 1493, gave all mainlands and islands, "at one time or even yet belonged to India" to Spain, even if east of the line.
The Portuguese King John II was not pleased with that arrangement, feeling that it gave him far too little land—it prevented him from possessing India, his near term goal. As of 1493, Portuguese explorers had already reached the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope. The Portuguese were unlikely to go to war over the islands encountered by Columbus, but the explicit mention of India was a major issue. With the failure of the Pope to make changes, the Portuguese king opened direct negotiations with the Catholic Monarchs, the King Ferdinand and the Queen Isabella, to move the line to the west and allow him to claim newly discovered lands east of the line. In the bargain, John accepted Inter caetera as the starting point of discussion with Ferdinand and Isabella, but had the boundary line moved 270 leagues west, protecting the Portuguese route down the coast of Africa and giving the Portuguese rights to lands that now constitute the Eastern quarter of Brazil. As one scholar assessed the results, "both sides must have known that so vague a boundary could not be accurately fixed, and each thought that the other was deceived, [concluding that it was a] diplomatic triumph for Portugal, confirming to the Portuguese not only the true route to India, but most of the South Atlantic".[7]
The treaty effectively countered the bulls of Alexander VI but was subsequently sanctioned by Pope Julius II by means of the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis of 24 January 1506.[8] Even though the treaty was negotiated without consulting the Pope, a few sources call the resulting line the "Papal Line of Demarcation".  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Tordesillas

X MARKS THE SPOT: THE BURIED TREASURE IS THE TRUTH ABOUT THE FEDERAL TAX SYSTEM & WHY YOU THINK YOU MUST PAY YOUR TAXES & WHAT YOU THINK YOU ARE PAYING FOR

The Spirit of '43 is an American animated World War II propaganda film created by Walt Disney Studios in 1942 and released in January 1943. The film stars Donald Duck, and arguably contains the first appearance of the character Scrooge McDuck, although Scrooge is not named in the film. It is a sequel to The New Spirit. The purpose of the film is to encourage patriotic Americans to file and pay their income taxes faithfully in order to help the war effort. The repeated theme in the film is "Taxes...To Defeat the Axis."
Douglas Fairbanks film, The Black Pirate, circa 1926, swimming underwater special effects (video) clip, below:
The opening episode of this epic, landmark series belies the commonly held misconception that silent films are crudely-made historical curiosities but a vibrant art form that had reached a high degree of sophistication by the late 1920s. Film clips from silent classics as well as interviews with surviving silent stars and filmmakers are featured.
COMPUTER ANIMATION
"John Whitney, Sr was an American animator, composer and inventor, widely considered to be one of the fathers of computer animation.[1] In the '40s and '50s, he and his brother James created a series of experimental films made with a custom-built device based on old anti-aircraft analog computers (Kerrison Predictors) connected by servos to control the motion of lights and lit objects — the first example of motion control photography. One of Whitney's best known works from this early period was the animated title sequence from Alfred Hitchcock's 1958 film Vertigo,[2] which he collaborated on with graphic designer Saul Bass. In 1960, Whitney established his company Motion Graphics Inc, which largely focused on producing titles for film and television, while continuing further experimental works. In 1968, his pioneering motion control model photography was used on Stanley Kubrick's movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, and also for the slit-scan photography technique used in the film's "Star Gate" finale. All of John Whitney's sons (Michael, Mark and John Jr.) are also film-makers. John Whitney died in 1995."


THE HISTORY OF FILM SPECIAL EFFECTS - Chapter Nine - "The 20TH CENTURY"
This historical video was recently re-discovered after being lost for many years. It was produced in 1972 and is believed to be the world's first computer-generated 3D animation. It was created by Ed Catmull, a true pioneer of 3D technology, who was a computer scientist at the University of Utah (birthplace of the famous Utah teapot.)
CRAY SUPER COMPUTER
"Seymour Cray began working in the computing field in 1950 when he joined Engineering Research Associates (ERA) in Saint Paul, Minnesota. There, he helped to create the ERA 1103. ERA eventually became part of UNIVAC, and began to be phased out. He left the company in 1960, a few years after former ERA employees set up Control Data Corporation (CDC). He eventually set up a lab at his home in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, about 85 miles to the east. Cray had a string of successes at CDC, including the CDC 6600 and CDC 7600."
COMPUTER GRAPHICS or CGI
"The phrase “computer graphics” itself was coined in 1960 by William Fetter, a graphic designer for Boeing.[5] This old quote in many secondary sources comes complete with the following sentence: (Fetter has said that the terms were actually given to him by Verne Hudson of the Wichita Division of Boeing.)[6]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_graphics#1960s
BOEING
Boeing’s work on missiles, which began in 1945, resulted in such weapons as the silo-launched Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile (deployed in 1962) and the AGM-86B/C air-launched cruise missile (deployed in 1982).
In the space sector during the 1960s and ’70s, Boeing built the Lunar Orbiters, NASA’s first spacecraft to orbit the Moon (1966–67), and the Mariner 10 space probe, which took the first close-up pictures of the surface of Mercury (1974–75). It also designed and built the first stage of the Saturn V rockets that sent Apollo astronauts to the Moon and the battery-powered Lunar Roving Vehicles used in the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. In 1976 it entered the upper-stage-rocket arena when it was selected to develop the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), a two-stage payload delivery vehicle that can be taken into space by either a space shuttle or a launcher such as the Titan. In 1993 NASA selected..."
The International Space Station
"...Boeing as the prime contractor for the ISS, and two years later the company became responsible for the integration and verification of ISS systems and the design, analysis, manufacture, verification, and delivery of the American components of the station.
In the 1960s and ’70s Boeing also diversified into areas such as marine craft (hydrofoils), transit systems, energy production, and agriculture but later refocused on aerospace. In 1981 the company first flew its twin-engine, wide-body Boeing 767, followed by its twin-engine, single-aisle 757 the next year. By featuring a common flight deck for the two aircraft, pilots who trained and qualified on one plane could also fly the other, thus reducing cost and increasing productivity for carriers. This concept of commonality also applied to more than 40 percent of all 757-767 parts. For its next jetliner, the twin-engine, wide-body 777, Boeing involved several key airlines in the development process in order to ensure that market needs and customer preferences were satisfied. Advances in computers and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software allowed Boeing to develop the 777 entirely on computers without having to build a physical mock-up of the airplane. The first flight took place in 1994.
In 1991 the U.S. Air Force chose a design offered by a consortium comprising Lockheed (later Lockheed Martin), Boeing, and General Dynamics for a twin-engine advanced tactical fighter with stealth features; the aircraft was named the F-22 Raptor and was first flown in 1997. In 1996 Boeing and Lockheed Martin received U.S. defense contracts to build competitive technology demonstrators for the Joint Strike Fighter, intended as an affordable, next-generation, multirole fighter for the armed services of the United States and Britain. In 1995 Boeing joined Ukrainian, Russian, and Anglo-Norwegian partners to form Sea Launch, a commercial launch services company that sent satellites into geostationary orbit from a floating platform at an equatorial site in the Pacific Ocean. Commercial launches began in 1999. In 2000 Boeing acquired the satellite business of Hughes Electronics.”

You Can’t Trust Them:

The Problem is that the same people who developed aircraft in the first place, also developed Hollywood Film Special Effect technology and eventually Computer Graphic technology.

So some of the science and some of the aircraft are fantasy and not remotely real.

"The Flying Fortress was designed in response to a USAAC competition, announced on August 6, 1934, to find a modern replacement for the assorted twin-engine Keystone biplane bombers and greater performance than the Martin B-10. While the performance of the B-10 was considered adequate at the time, the Keystones lumbered along at about 115 mph (185 km/h), were very unmaneuverable, lightly armed and carried only a limited bomb load.1 The requirement was for a multi-engine bomber to be used for coastal-defense. 
Specifications required were:
  • Range of at least 1,020 miles (1,640 km).
  • Speed of 200 to 250 mph (322 to 402 km/h). 
  • Bomb load of 2,000 lb (907 kg).
    A Boeing design team began work on the Model 299 prototype in June 1934 and construction began in August of the same year. The most significant rival to the Model 299 was the Douglas DB-1, which was based on the Douglas DC-2. The third competitor was the Martin 146.
    The 299 would be built at Boeing’s expense and there would be no reimbursement if it did not win a contract. After Boeing failed to win a contract to produce the  Boeing B-9, the Model 299 was a make-or-break gamble for Boeing."
HOWARD HUGHES FilM, AEROSPACE & ELECTRONiCS, The History of Direct TV
"In 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a non-profit medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter. Following Hughes' death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, and litigation ensued to determine whether it would be allowed to maintain its interest in Hughes Aircraft. In 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.2 billion. General Motors then merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation. The new subsidiary was initially composed of four units: Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, and Hughes Network Systems.
Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting (USSB) in 1981 and was a leading proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States. USSB was awarded five frequencies by the FCC, at the coveted 101 degree west satellite location. Hughes Communications, Inc. was also awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location. After many years, the technology was developed to enable the building of very high-power satellites, and digital compression (MPEG-2) standards were developed that allowed multiple digital television channels to be sent through each satellite frequency.
After Hughes failed to complete a joint venture with NBCNews Corp., and Cablevision in 1990, to launch the first high-power digital television service called Sky Cable,[13] the company created DirecTV as a separate division and secured an agreement with USSB to build and launch the first high-power direct-broadcast satellite system. DirecTV's name is a portmanteau of "direct" and "TV" (as in direct broadcast satellite television). Hughes/DirecTV then turned to Thomson Consumer Electronics (under the RCA, GE, and ProScan brands) to develop the digital satellite system for the service that would be capable of receiving 175 channels on a small 18-inch dish. These dishes utilized a new generation of smaller, lighter receiver dishes based on military technology introduced by the Global Broadcast System, which predated DirecTV's viability by almost ten years. Hughes was awarded the contract to build and launch the new high-powered satellites, and USSB and DirecTV agreed that the new satellites would carry the two separate programming services: USSB and DirecTV.
On June 17, 1994, the USSB and DirecTV programming services were launched. Digital Equipment Corporation provided the hardware for DirecTV, Matrixx Marketing (part of Cincinnati Bell) provided customer care via the Matrixx Plus department, and DBS Systems created the billing software. In December 1998, DirecTV acquired USSB for $1.3 billion, and combined the two satellite services.[14] In 1999, DirecTV acquired PrimeStar, a competitor in the satellite television industry, for $1.83 billion, dramatically increasing its share of the satellite television market in the US.[15]
In September 1996, Hughes purchased 70% of PanAmSat for $3 billion.[16] In 1997, GM spun off Delco Electronics from Hughes and transferred it to Delphi Automotive Systems.[17] That same year, Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion.[18] Raytheon filed a lawsuit in 1999 accusing Hughes of overstating the value of Hughes Aircraft by $1 billion.[19] A $635.5-million settlement was reached in 2001.[20] In 2000, Hughes Space and Communications was sold to Boeing for $3.75 billion,[21] which it later claimed had also been overvalued by Hughes. Hughes later settled with Boeing for $360 million.[22] These sales left DirecTV, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems as the remaining components of Hughes Electronics.
In September 2000, GM executives, under pressure from GM's shareholders as a result of its poor performance and the substantially greater market worth of Hughes, authorized Hughes executives to begin seeking buyers.[23] In 2001, News Corporation began negotiations to acquire Hughes Electronics in a deal worth $8 billion, which would allow News Corp. to expand its Sky Global Networks satellite television operations into the United States.[24] Negotiations with News Corp. ultimately failed, and Hughes entered into an agreement on October 28, 2001 to be purchased for $26 billion by EchoStar, owner of Dish Network.[25] However, the deal attracted significant opposition from the Department of Justice and the Federal Communications Commission for antitrust concerns, leading the two companies to withdraw the agreement in December 2002.[26] As part of the merger agreement, EchoStar was required to pay Hughes $600 million for the failure of the merger.[26]
On April 9, 2003, News Corporation agreed to purchase a 34% controlling interest in Hughes, including GM's entire share of the company, for $6.6 billion, subject to SEC approval.[27] As part of the financing for the deal, Liberty Media agreed to take a $500-million option of stock in News Corporation that would be exercised upon the closing of the deal. Liberty, the second-largest shareholder in News Corp. after the Murdoch family with 18%, had originally planned to bid for DirecTV, but opted not to upon the agreement.[27] The FCC voted 3-2 along party lines on December 19, 2003 to approve the deal subject to conditions, forcing News Corp. to agree to arbitration for all disputes with carriers of its media broadcasters, and to provide content through DirecTV neutrally rather than favoring its own networks.[28]"
Surprisingly early -- and slightly creepy -- parametric facial animation created at the University of Utah in 1974(!). Update: I'd initially reported this as having been created in 1972, the date given on the SIGGRAPH reel. YouTube user 'rarevision' informs me that the book "Handbook of Virtual Humans" more likely dates this from 1974.
"In 1983 I saw the Quantel Paintbox for the first time at a tradeshow in Sydney. By Februrary 1984 I was living in America working for Quantel demonstrating and helping develop the Paintbox. This is an old video, possibly one of the first demo videos, featuring Martin Holbrook, the first Paintbox artist."
LOCKHEED MARTIN
"Real3D, Inc. was a maker of arcade graphics boards, a spin-off from Lockheed Martin. The company made several 3D hardware designs that were used by Sega, the most widely used being the graphics hardware in the Sega Model 2 and Model 3 arcade systems. A partnership with Intel and SGI led to the Intel740 graphics card, which was not successful in the market. Rapid changes in the marketplace led to the company being sold to Intel in 1999."
"The majority of Real3D was formed by research and engineering divisions originally part of GE Aerospace. Their experience traces its way back to the Project Apollo Visual Docking Simulator, the first full-color 3D computer generated image system.[1] GE sold similar systems of increasing complexity through the 1970s, but were never as large as other companies in the simulator space, like Singer Corporation or CAE.
When "neutron" Jack Welch took over General Electric in 1981 he demanded that every division in the company be 1st or 2nd in its industry, or face being sold off. GE Aerospace lasted longer than many other divisions, but was eventually sold off to Martin Marietta in 1992.[2] In 1995, Martin Marietta and Lockheed merged to form Lockheed Martin Corporation, the world’s largest defense contractor.

Following the merger, Lockheed Martin decided to market their graphics technology for civilian use. In January 1995 they set up Real3D and formed a relationship with Sega. This led to the company's most successful product run, designing the 3D hardware using in over 200,000 Sega Model2 and Model3 arcade systems, two of the most popular systems in history.

The company also formed a partnership with Intel and Chips and Technologies to introduce similar technology as an add-in card for PC's, a project known as "Auburn". This project became a showcase for the Accelerated Graphics Port system being introduced by Intel, which led to several design decisions that hampered the resulting products. Released in 1998 as the Intel740, the system lasted less than a year in the market before being sold off under the StarFighter and Lightspeed brandnames.

By 1999 both relationships were ending, and Lockheed Martin was focussing on its military assets. On 1 October 1999 the company closed, and its assets were sold to Intel on the 14th.[4] ATI hired many of the remaining employees for a new Orlando office. 3dfx Interactive had sued Real3D on a patent basis, and Intel's purchased moved the lawsuits to the new owner. Intel settled the issue by selling all of the intellectual property back to 3dFX.[5]
By this point, nVidia had acquired all of SGI's graphics development resources, which included a 10% share in Real3D. This led to series of lawsuits, joined by ATI. The two companies were involved in lawsuits over Real3D's patents until a 2001 cross-licensing settlement."
"NViDiA's new GPU proves moon landing truthers wrong"
"Despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary, there still exist some people on planet Earth who believe it's the only celestial body humanity has ever walked upon. You've heard it before -- the moon landing was a hoax, a mere TV drama produced by Stanley Kubrick presented as fact to dupe the Soviet Union into giving up the space race. This deliciously ludicrous conspiracy theory has been debunked countless times, but now its advocates have one more refutation to deny: NVIDIA's Voxel Global Illumination tech demo. It's a GPU-powered recreation of the Apollo 11 landing site that uses dynamic lighting technology to address common claims of moon-deniers, and it's pretty neat."
From Sewing Machines to GPS: The History of Singer
"In the 1960s the company diversified, acquiring the Friden calculator company in 1965, Packard Bell Electronics in 1966 and General Precision Equipment Corporation in 1968. GPE included LibrascopeThe Kearfott Company, Inc, and Link Flight Simulation. In the 1968 also Singer bought out GPS Systems and added it to the Link Simulations Systems Division (LSSD). This unit produced nuclear power plant control center simulators in Silver Spring, MD; while flight simulators were produced in Binghamton, New York.
In 1987, corporate raider, Paul Bilzerian, made a "greenmail" run at Singer, and ended up owning the company when no "White Knight" rescuer appeared. To recover his money, Bilzerian sold off parts of the company. Kearfott was split, the Kearfott Guidance & Navigation Corporation was sold to the Astronautics Corporation of America in 1988 and the Electronic Systems Division was purchased by GEC-Marconi in 1990, renamed GEC-Marconi Electronic Systems (and later incorporated into BAE Systems). The Sewing Machine Division was sold in 1989 to Semi-Tech Microelectronics, a publicly traded Toronto-based company.[16]
For several years in the 1970s, Singer set up a national sales force for CAT phototypesetting machines (of UNIX troff fame) made by another Massachusetts company, Graphic Systems Inc.[17] This division was purchased by Wang Laboratories in 1978.
Do Be a 'CAD'
"Designers[9][10][11][12] have long used computers for their calculations. Digital computers were used in power system analysis or optimization as early as proto-"Whirlwind" in 1949. Circuit[13] design theory, or power network methodology would be algebraicsymbolic, and often vector-based. Examples of problems being solved in the mid-1940s to 50s include, Servo motors controlled by generated pulse (1949), The digital computer with built-in compute operations to automatically co-ordinate transforms to compute radar related vectors (1951) and the essentially graphic mathematical process of forming a shape with a digital machine tool (1952).[14] These were accomplished with the use of computer software. The man credited with coining the term CAD.[15] Douglas T. Ross stated "As soon as I saw the interactive display equipment, [being used by radar operators 1953]. The designers of these very early computers built utility programs so that programmers could debug programs using flow charts on a display scope with logical switches that could be opened and closed during the debugging session. They found that they could create electronic symbols and geometric figures to be used to create simple circuit diagrams and flow charts.[16] They made the pleasant discovery that an object once drawn could be reproduced at will, its orientation, Linkage [ fluxmechanicallexical scoping ] or scale changed. This suggested numerous possibilities to them. It took ten years of interdisciplinary development[17] work before SKETCHPAD sitting on evolving math libraries emerged from MIT`s labs. Additional developments were carried out in the 1960s within the aircraft, automotive, industrial control and electronics industries in the area of 3D surface construction, NC programming and design analysis, most of it independent of one another and often not publicly published until much later. Some of the mathematical description work on curves was developed in the early 1940s by Robert Issac Newton from Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Robert A. Heinlein in his 1957 novel The Door into Summer suggested the possibility of a robotic Drafting Dan. However, probably the most important work on polynomial curves and sculptured surface was done by Pierre BézierPaul de Casteljau (Citroen), Steven Anson Coons (MIT, Ford), James Ferguson (Boeing), Carl de Boor(GM), Birkhoff (GM) and Garibedian (GM) in the 1960s and W. Gordon (GM) and R. Riesenfeld in the 1970s.
The invention of the 3D CAD/CAM is attributed to a French engineer, Pierre Bezier (Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Renault). After his mathematical work concerning surfaces, he developed UNISURF, between 1966 and 1968, to ease the design of parts and tools for the automotive industry. Then, UNISURF became the working base for the following generations of CAD software.
It is argued that a turning point was the development of the SKETCHPAD system at MIT[18][19] by Ivan Sutherland (who later created a graphics technology company with Dr. David Evans). The distinctive feature of SKETCHPAD was that it allowed the designer to interact with his computer graphically: the design can be fed into the computer by drawing on a CRT monitor with a light pen. Effectively, it was a prototype of graphical user interface, an indispensable feature of modern CAD. Sutherland presented his paper Sketchpad: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System in 1963 at a Joint Computer Conference having worked on it as his PhD thesis paper for a few years. Quoting,"For drawings where motion of the drawing, or analysis of a drawn problem is of value to the user, Sketchpad excels. For highly repetitive drawings or drawings where accuracy is required, Sketchpad is sufficiently faster than conventional techniques to be worthwhile. For drawings which merely communicate with shops, it is probably better to use conventional paper and pencil." Over time efforts would be directed toward the goal of having the designers drawings communicate not just with shops but with the shop tool itself. This goal would be a long time arriving.
The first commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries, as well as in electronics. Only large corporations could afford the computers capable of performing the calculations. Notable company projects were, a joint project of GM (Dr. Patrick J.Hanratty) and IBM (Sam Matsa , Doug Ross`s MIT APT research assistant) to develop a prototype system for design engineers DAC-1 (Design Augmented by Computer) 1964; Lockheed projects; Bell GRAPHIC 1 and Renault.
One of the most influential events in the development of CAD was the founding of MCS (Manufacturing and Consulting Services Inc.) in 1971 by Dr. P. J. Hanratty,[20] who wrote the system ADAM (Automated Drafting And Machining) but more importantly supplied code to companies such as McDonnell Douglas (Unigraphics), Computervision (CADDS), Calma, Gerber, Autotrol and Control Data.
As computers became more affordable, the application areas have gradually expanded. The development of CAD software for personal desktop computers was the impetus for almost universal application in all areas of construction.
Other key points in the 1960s and 1970s would be the foundation of CAD systems United Computing, Intergraph, IBM, Intergraph IGDS in 1974 (which led to Bentley Systems MicroStation in 1984).
CAD implementations have evolved dramatically since then. Initially, with 3D in the 1970s, it was typically limited to producing drawings similar to hand-drafted drawings. Advances in programming and computer hardware,[21][22] notably solid modeling in the 1980s, have allowed more versatile applications of computers in design activities.
Key products for 1981 were the solid modelling packages - Romulus (ShapeData) and Uni-Solid (Unigraphics) based on PADL-2 and the release of the surface modeler CATIA (Dassault Systemes). Autodesk was founded 1982 by John Walker, which led to the 2D system AutoCAD. The next milestone was the release of Pro/ENGINEER in 1987, which heralded greater usage of feature-based modeling methods and parametric linking of the parameters of features. Also of importance to the development of CAD was the development of the B-rep solid modeling kernels (engines for manipulating geometrically and topologically consistent 3D objects) Parasolid (ShapeData) and ACIS (Spatial Technology Inc.) at the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s, both inspired by the work of Ian Braid. This led to the release of mid-range packages such as SolidWorks and TriSpective (later known as IRONCAD) in 1995, Solid Edge (then Intergraph) in 1996 and Autodesk Inventor in 1999. An independent geometric modeling kernelhas been evolving in Russia since the 1990s.[23] Nikolay Golovanov joined ASCON Company in 1994 from the Kolomna Engineering Design Bureauand began development of C3D – the geometric kernel of the Russian popular CAD system, KOMPAS-3D.[24] Nowadays, C3D (C3D Labs) is the most valued Russian CAD product in the category of "components", i.e. products designed for integration in the end-user CAD systems of Russian and global vendors.[25]"
Creating Fluid Simulations
"In computer graphics, the earliest attempts to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in full 3D came in 1996, by Nick Foster and Dimitris Metaxas, who based their work primarily on a classic CFD paper from 1965 by Harlow & Welch. Prior to this, many methods were built on ad-hoc particle systems, lower dimensional techniques such as 2D shallow water models, and semi-random turbulent noise fields. In 1999, Jos Stam published the so-called Stable Fluids method at SIGGRAPH, which exploited a semi-Lagrangian advection technique and implicit integration of viscosity to provide unconditionally stable behaviour. This allowed for much larger time steps and in general, faster simulations. This general technique was extended by Fedkiw & collaborators to handle complex 3D water simulations using the level set method in papers in 2001 and 2002.
Some notable academic researchers in this area include James F. O'BrienRon Fedkiw, Mark Carlson, Greg TurkRobert Bridson, Ken Museth and Jos Stam."
WHY FAKE IT? Newton & Einstein are Wrong!

A= a number that will increase forever

B = 3

Can A always = B?

The Proverbial Apple Proves Newton Wrong. The Apple will fall to the Earth, the Moon will not.
Using Gravity To Explain Celestial Motions Is Wrong

Einstein & Newton Both Made the Same Mistake:
They claim an accelerated (ever increasing) velocity can be balanced by a (fixed) constant velocity. This is obviously, conceptually and logically flawed reasoning despite any mathematical model fudgery.

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